Rožanski and Hajdučki Kukovi Strict Reserve, part of the North Velebit National Park. The Velebit massif, spanning 145 km, is the longest mountain in Croatia and the fourth highest, culminating at 1,757 m, after Dinara (1831 m), Kamešnica (1809 m) and Biokovo (1762 m).

Geography and population

Relief

Although the land area of Croatia is not large (56,594 km², 19th in size among the countries of the European Union), it has an extremely varied relief, as it adjoins several large European relief forms. There are three main types of relief in Croatia: lowland Pannonian, mountainous Dinaric and coastal Adriatic.

The lowlands occupy the largest area, with 53% of the territory under 200 m, while 26% of the country is hilly, with peaks between 200 and 500 m, and 21% lies over 500 m above sea level. The lowest areas are in the northeast region, which forms part of the Pannonian Plain, where the alluvial plains of the Sava, Drava and Danube alternate with the cinder plains of Baranja and Srijem.

The Slavonian plains, a lowland Pannonian landscape in the northwest of the country
Plešivica Heights, hills south of Zagreb, which belong to the hilly peri-Pannonian border
Gorski Kotar, part of the mountainous area in the hinterland behind Rijeka

Further west, isolated, wooded peaks rise up from the plains to a maximum of 1,000 m (Psunj, Papuk and Krndija). Along the edge of the Pannonian Plain is the hilly peri-Pannonian area with a large proportion of highland, sometimes exceeding 1,000 m absolute height (Medvednica, Ivančica, Žumberačka Gora). The transition to the mountainous region is formed by the hills and limestone plateaus of Pokuplje and Kordun. The real mountain region includes Gorski Kotar and Lika, with part of the Dinaric highland, basically lying NW-SE, with the highest mountains along the edges (Risnjak, Mala and Velika Kapela, Plješivica, Velebit and Dinara). In Gorski Kotar there is a sharp contrast between the highland area and the deeply hewn river valleys of the Čabranka, Kupa and Dobra. In inland Lika there are extensive karst fields (Plaščansko, Gacko, Ličko and Krbavsko).

Mljet National Park on the southern Adriatic coast
Dinara, a mountainous karst formation, whose highest peak is also called Dinara and is the highest in the country (1,831 m), on the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina
The River Neretva delta in the southern part of the coastal region, between Split and Dubrovnik

The coastal region extends from the mountains. In the north, it includes the Istrian peninsula, while south of Rijeka the coastal belt is narrow, bordered by high mountains (Velebit) on one side and islands on the other. The southern stretch of coastline corresponds to the historically established region of Dalmatia. The main feature of this area is the dominant karst relief. It is characterised by lengthwise zonality and the division into islands, the coastal belt and the hilly area of Zagora in the hinterland. The coastal zone is proportionally narrow, bordered inland by steep mountain slopes. It is widest and lowest in the flysch zones of Ravni Kotari in the north, in the central Kaštel region, and in the River Neretva delta in the south. In the hinterland is Dalmatinska Zagora, a hilly region with several broad karst fields (Sinjsko and Imotsko).

Relief map (names in Croatian)
Bijele Stijene (White Rocks), an area in Gorski Kotar with well developed karst formations; along with neighbouring Samarske Stijene, it has been protected as a strict nature reserve since 1985
Karst region

Karst

About half the territory of Croatia is karst land, while part of the wider region is composed of the same material, Dinaric karst, named after the Croatian mountain, and continues into Slovenia in the northwest and Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro in the east and southeast. Karst land is characterised by the predominantly underground circulation of water through porous carbonate rock (limestone, dolomite). As the water dissolves calcium carbonate, it creates characteristic surface formations (sink-holes, clefts, valleys, fields) and underground formations (chasms, caves, grottos). About 50 caves deeper than 250 metres have been discovered. Lukina Jama in the Hajdučki Kukovi region, in the Northern Velebit National Park, is among the 20 deepest caves in the world (explored to a depth of 1,421 m).

Samograd Cave near Perušić in Lika
Modro Jezero (Blue Lake) near Imotski, filling a deep sink-hole, and protected as a geomorphological natural monument. Neighbouring Crveno Jezero (Red Lake) is one of the deepest in Europe.
Sink-hole on Biokovo, a coastal mountain which has been protected as a nature park since 1981

Rivers arise from powerful sources, and may flow over or underground before emerging again at ground level in lower lying areas. Submarine sweet water springs known as vrulje are common. The karst land may be forested or completely bare. Within Europe, Croatia is considered to be one of the classic karst countries. Almost all formations have developed, so some Croatian names for particular karst shapes have been adopted in international scientific terminology. The karst region includes the largest reserves of underground drinking water, which require special protection from the dangers of pollution. Since the level of preservation is high, the Croatian karst region is of exceptional natural value in European terms.